Fourth Skanda

The Creation of the Fourth Order,
the Lord’s Protection:

Order in the world: Manu, Daksha, Dhruva, Prithu,
the allegory of Purañjana and the Pracetas

Chapter 1
Genealogical Table of the Daughters of Manu

(1) S’rî Maitreya said: ‘Svâyambhuva Manu begot in his wife S’atarûpâ as well [as two sons] three daughters named Âkûti, Devahûti and Prasûti, as you know [see 3.12: 56]. (2) Although Âkûti had brothers was she handed over to the great sage Ruci on the condition that the king, who had the support of religious rites and the consent of his wife, would get the resultant son. (3) He, the most powerful great sage Ruci, was entrusted the procreation and begot in her a pair of children that were of the greatest spiritual and brahminical strength. (4) The male child of the two, Yajña [‘the One of Sacrifice’], was a direct personification of Vishnu while the other female child Dakshinâ was His unseparable plenary portion, the Goddess of Fortune [Lakshmî]. (5) The very powerful son born of the daughter was taken to the home of the very happy Svâyambhuva Manu, while Ruci kept Dakshinâ with himself. (6) The Lord and master of all sacrifice who always longed for her, married and His wife, very pleased to have Him for her husband, gave birth to twelve sons. (7) The twelve were: Tosha, Pratosha, Santosha, Bhadra, Sânti, Idaspati, Idhma, Kavi, Vibhu, Svahna, Sudeva and Rocana. (8) In the period of Svâyambhuva they were known as the Tushita demigods, with Marîci heading the sages and Yajña as the King of the Enlightened. (9) The two sons of Manu, Priyavrata and Uttânapâda, were in that period of the greatest and their sons and grandsons spread all over. (10) My dear, concerning Svâyambhuva handing over his daughter to Kardama, you have heard me speaking in full [see 3.12: 57]. (11) The great personality Svâyambhuva gave Prasûti to Daksha, the son of Brahmâ, who’s offspring expanded greatly over the three worlds. (12) I told you already about the nine daughters of Kardama who became the wives of nine great sages of spiritual knowledge [see 3.24: 21-25]. Now hear from me my description of the generations coming from them. (13) The daughter of Kardama, the wife of Marîci also named Kalâ, gave birth to Kas’yapa and Pûrnimâ whose children spread all over the world. (14) Pûrnimâ got sons named Viraja, Vis’vaga, o conqueror, and a daughter named Devakulyâ. By the water which washed from the Lord His lotus feet she became the holy of the Ganges. (15) The wife of Atri Muni, named Anasûyâ, bore three very famous sons: Dattâtreya, Durvâsâ and Soma [the moon-god], which are [partial] incarnations of respectively the Supersoul [Vishnu], Lord S’iva and Lord Brahmâ.’

(16) Vidura said: ‘O spiritual master, tell me how in the house of Atri the chief demigods to the causes of maintenance, creation and destruction, could appear desiring to do something.’

(17) Maitreya said: ‘Being inspired by Lord Brahmâ to procreate went Atri, the chief of the learned in spiritual knowledge, together with his wife to the great mountain named Riksha to stay there for austerities. (18) In that place in the garden of the forest there were many flowers, as’oka trees growing everywhere and the sound of the falling waters of the river the Nirvindhyâ. (19) Controlling the mind by regulating his breath remained the sage there for a hundred years, eating the air standing on the one leg of non-duality. (20) He thought: ‘Taking shelter I surrender myself to Him, may He who is for sure the master of the universe give me a son alike Himself.’ (21) By the fire that, issuing from the top of the head of the sage, was fueled by his breath control, was he, practicing his austerities over the three worlds, noticed by the three principal gods. (22) With the fame of his honor spreading did the Apsaras, the munis, the Gandharvas the Siddhas, the Vidyâdharas and Nâgas, head for his place of meditation. (23) When he saw the simultaneous appearance of these demigods and great personalities, lightened up the mind of the sage who had awakened on his one leg. (24) Recognizing the symbols of their personal paraphernalia [drum, kus’a grass and discus] and the bull, the swan and Garuda on which they were seated, he with folded hands fell down prostrating before them, offering his obeisances. (25) Dazzled by the glaring effulgence of their smiling faces and the apparent satisfaction from their merciful glances, the sage closed his eyes. (26-27) Fixing his heart on them he whispered the ecstatic words of the prayers that he offered the honorable predominating demigods with folded hands. Atri said: ‘I bow before you the Lord Brahmâ, Lord S’iva and Lord Vishnu, who, as always in the different millenniums, have accepted your bodies in the being divided to the modes of nature in the creation, destruction and maintenance of the universe. Whom of you have I really been calling for? (28) Being so merciful, please explain to me doubting so seriously, how it can be so that, although being far beyond the minds of the embodied, all of you appeared here while I, for begetting a child, fixed my mind on the One Great Lord of all Fortune?

(29) Maitreya said: ‘O mighty one, after thus hearing of the great sage his words, replied in gentle voices all the three chief demigods smiling at him. (30) The gods said: ‘As you have decided to, so shall it be done and not otherwise; to you whose determination was never lost, o dear brahmin, we are all of the One you were so truly meditating upon. (31) Therefore will our plenary expansions – your sons to be born – be very famous in the world, dear sage and to your great fortune they will also spread your good name.’

(32) As the husband and wife were looking on did the chief demigods, thus having offered the desired benediction being perfectly worshiped, return from there. (33) Soma appeared as a partial expansion of Lord Brahmâ, Dattâtreya as a very powerful yogi of Lord Vishnu, and Durvâsâ as a partial expansion of S’ankara [S’iva]. Hear now about the generations that came from Angirâ. (34) S’raddhâ, the wife of Angirâ, gave birth to the daughters Sinîvâlî, Kuhû and Râkâ with Anumati as the fourth one. (35) Besides them were the sons born from him very famous in the millennium of Svârocisha Manu [the second Manu after Svâyambhuva]: the mighty Utathya and Brihaspati, the full of the brahminical in person. (36) Pulastya begot in his wife Havirbhû, Âgastya, who in his next birth would be Dahrâgni [the one of the digestive fire], and Vis’ravâ, the great one of austerity. (37) Of Vis’ravâ came the demigod Kuvera, the king of the Yakshas [his supernatural attendants], who was born from Idavidâ while the sons Râvana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhîshana were born from another wife [named Kes’inî]. (38) Gati, the wife of Pulaha, o devoted one, gave birth to three chaste sons [Karmas’reshthha, Varîyân and Sahishnu] who knew all about karma and were also very respectable and tolerant. (39) Kriyâ, the wife of sage Kratu, from her side brought forth sixty thousand sages living to the Vâlakhilya [some Rig Veda verses about the retired position], who shone with the brilliance of the brahminical [they are also known as the small ones produced from Brahmâ, surrounding the chariot of the sun]. (40) From Ûrjâ [also called Arundhatî], of the sage Vasishthha, o great one, came Citraketu as the principal of seven sons who were all great and pure sages of the Absolute Truth. (41) They were Citraketu, Suroci, Virajâ, Mitra, Ulbana, Vasubhridyâna and Dyumân. Also were there S’akti and other sons born from his other wife. (42) Also Citti [also known as Sânti], the wife of Atharvâ, got in complete dedication to the Dadhyañca vow [the vow of meditation] a son who was called As’vas’irâ. Now hear about the generation of Bhrigu. (43) Bhrigu, greatly fortunate, begot in his wife Khyâti, the sons Dhâtâ and Vidhâtâ and a daughter named S’rî, who was of great devotion to the Lord. (44) Âyati and Niyati, two daughters of the sage Meru, were given in marriage to the two of them from whom appeared Mrikanda and also Prâna. (45) Mârkandeya Muni was born from Mrikanda and from Prâna came the great sage Vedas’irâ whose greatly powerful son named Kavi Bhârgava was also known as Us’anâ [or S’ukrâcârya]. (46-47) O Vidura, I have spoken to you about how they, all the great sages, with their descendants populated the three worlds with grandsons born from the offspring of sage Kardama. With faith hearing about this will forthwith diminish the greater of all sinful reactions.

Prasûti, a daughter of Manu, married the veritable son of Brahmâ, Daksha. (48) With her Daksha begot sixteen lotus-eyed daughters of which thirteen were given in marriage to Dharma and one was given to Agni. (49-52) One daughter he gave to the forefathers together and one he gave to Lord S’iva, the deliverer of the sinful. S’raddhâ, Maitrî, Dayâ, Sânti, Tushthi, Pushthi, Kriyâ, Unnati, Buddhi, Medhâ, Titikshâ, Hrî and Mûrti are the names of Daksha’s daughters given to Dharma, of whom S’raddhâ got S’ubha, Maitrî got Prasâda, Dayâ got Abhaya, Sânti got Sukha, Tushthi got Muda, Pushthi got Smaya, Kriyâ got Yoga, Unnati got Darpa, Buddhi got Artha, Medhâ got Smriti, Titikshâ got Kshema and Hrî got Pras’raya. Mûrti, a reservoir of all good qualities, gave birth to the two sages Nara and Nârâyana. (53) The appearance of the both of Them gladdened the universe and filled everyone’s mind with joy; in all directions over the rivers and mountains the atmosphere became pleasant. (54-55) From the heavens musical instruments vibrated and flowers were showered from the sky, the sages satisfied chanted vedic hymns and the Gandharvas and Kinnaras began to sing. The beautiful damsels of heaven danced as all signs of good fortune were seen and the demigods, Brahmâ and the others all offered prayers of respect. (56) The gods said: ‘Our obeisances unto the Supreme Original Personality, who by His own external energy created the variety of all existing that resides in Him the way masses of clouds are found in the sky, and who today has appeared in the form of these sages in the house of Dharma. (57) May He, who is understood by the Vedas and who, in order to put an end to the misfortune of the created world, by the mode of goodness created us, the demigods, bestow His merciful glance, which supersedes the spotless lotus that is the home of the Goddess of Fortune’.

(58) O Vidura, the Supreme Lord, thus being praised by the assembled demigods finding the mercy of His glance, departed after that worship for Gandhamâdana Hill. (59) These two partial [ams’a] incarnations of the Supreme Lord Hari, have now appeared here for mitigating the burden of the world as the two of Krishna who are the best that the Kuru and Yadu-dynasty brought forth. (60) Svâhâ [daughter of Daksha], the wife of the presiding deity of fire Agni, produced three sons: Pâvaka, Pavamâna and S’uci who feed on the oblations of the sacrifice. (61) From them were forty-five fire gods produced, so that together there are in truth forty-nine of them, including the fathers and the grandfather. (62) By the names of these forty-nine fire-gods do the knowers of Brahman direct themselves in their fire sacrifices. (63) Their forefathers are these Agnishvâttas, Barhishadas, Saumyas and Âjyapas; they either operate with or without fire and Svadhâ, Daksha’s daughter is their actual wife. (64) From them were two daughters, Vayunâ and Dhârinî, produced who were both expert in as well the knowledge as the transcendence with the impersonal way of Brahman. (65) The wife of Bhava [a name of S’iva], named Satî, faithfully engaged herself in the service of Bhava, the demigod, but was herself, despite of her qualities and character, not able to get a similar son. (66) Her own father namely had in anger been unfavorable to the faultless one [S’iva], so that she even before attaining maturity, in the connectedness of yoga had to give up her own body.